Frequently asked questions about cannabis

The industrial "fiber" hemp is made from plants belonging to the Cannabaceae family. Unlike the known cannabis, 'fiber' hemp is not used for recreational purposes, since its tetrahydrocannabinol concentration, the active psychotropic substance, is very low and in particular up to 0.2%, in accordance with the applicable provisions of European Union legislation.

It is noted for comparison purposes, that the content of cannabis used for recreational purposes is up to 16%. To date, fiber (industrial) hemp could not have been cultivated in Cyprus due to its botanical affinity with cannabis sativa, which, according to the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, is banned. At the European level, Community legislation regulates the import of hemp seed for cultivation under Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2007 of the Council, calling on member states to establish control and authorization mechanisms.

The Addictions Authority, in cooperation with the competent bodies, has initiated the amendment of the "Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act", so that it reflects the European acquis and the related regulations, where the cultivation of industrial (fiber) hemp is allowed, under specific requirements that should include monitoring and control mechanisms.

According to the National Institute of Health and National Institute on Drug Abuse, cannabis is addictive. Estimates from scientific research indicate that 9% of users are addicted to marijuana. This percentage is even higher among people who start using it at a younger age (17% among young users and 25-50% among cannabis users on a daily basis). According to the same source, long-term cannabis users, who try to quit using it, report having withdrawal symptoms including irritability, insomnia, decreased appetite, anxiety and craving for cannabis use. After one-time use, tetrahydrocannabinol remains in the human body for up to 30 days. For this reason, the withdrawal symptoms mentioned above are not immediately identified (Ashton, 2001).

Many studies conclude that cannabis may be an entry-level substance that might lead to the use of other substances and is associated with an increased risk of using other illicit substances, the risk of abuse or dependence on other illicit substances, and the use of multiple addictive substances (Golub A., Johnson B. & Fergusson D., Horwood J. & Fergusson D., Boden J., Horwood J.).

At the same time, according to data for 2012 (those who started receiving treatment that year), of the total number of people seeking treatment, 53.3% requested assistance due to cannabis use. Of these, more than 50% sought help without the 'coercion' of the Drug Law Enforcement Unit. Also, of those who requested help due to use of substances other than cannabis, 8 out of 10 started out with cannabis (National Documentation and Monitoring Centre for Drugs, 2013).

Medical cannabis is the cannabis used for medical purposes. According to the National Institute of Health of the United States of America regarding the medical use of cannabis, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) of the United States has conducted research on a large number of patients in order to evaluate the benefits and risks of medical cannabis and concluded that there is not enough convincing evidence to suggest that marijuana benefits outweigh the risks in patients.

In addition, to be considered legal, a drug must contain precise, specific and measurable components in each unit (tablet, injection, etc.). This stability allows doctors to determine the dosage and frequency of a drug. Marijuana plants contain hundreds of chemicals that may have different effects that vary from plant to plant. For the above reasons, the use of cannabis as a medicine is very difficult to evaluate (US Department of Health, 2012).

However, there are medications based on tetrahydrocannabinol that have already been approved by various authorities in both the US and other countries and are prescribed to patients.

The acute toxicity of cannabis is very low and no overdose risks have been documented. However, the Monitoring Unit (National Documentation and Monitoring Centre for Drugs), which has been monitoring and collecting data on deaths related to illicit dependence since 2004, recorded eight deaths related to addictive substances for the year 2012. During the toxicological examination of the corpses, cannabis was detected in three of them (National Documentation and Monitoring Centre for Drugs, 2013).

When marijuana is smoked, THC, the active ingredient of cannabis, quickly passes through the lungs into the bloodstream, which carries the chemicals to the brain and other organs throughout the body. If cannabis is consumed with food or drinks, it is absorbed more slowly. However, upon ingestion, THC affects specific molecules in the brain cells, called cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are usually activated by chemicals similar to THC, which occur naturally in the body and are a part of a communication network called the endocannabinoid system. This system plays an important role in the normal development and function of the brain. The highest density of cannabinoid receptors is found in areas of the brain that affect pleasure, memory, thinking, concentration, time, sensory perception, and coordinated movement.

Cannabis stimulates the endocannabinoid system, causing euphoria and simultaneous changes in perception and mood, coordination disorder, difficulty thinking and problem-solving, as well as learning and memory disorders.

Cannabis also affects brain development and when used extensively by young people, its effects on thinking and memory can last for a long time or even become permanent. A recent study of cannabis users, who started using during puberty, observed a significant decrease in connectivity between the brain areas that are responsible for learning and memory. A major long-term study in New Zealand showed that people who started smoking marijuana heavily in their teens, lost an average of IQ 8 points between the ages of 13 and 38 years. We should note that the lost cognitive abilities of those who quit smoking as adults, have not been fully restored. The study showed that people who started smoking marijuana in adulthood saw no significant decrease in their IQ.

Frequently asked questions about the Narcotest legislation

The Cyprus National Addictions Authority (NAAC) aims, among other things, to take preventive measures for the use of addictive substances that have a negative impact not only on users themselves but also on society. Narcotest has been implemented as such a measure that is expected to significantly help with the reduction of accidents and particularly fatal ones. From 2014 to 2016 in Cyprus, 17 deaths from road accidents were recorded in which illicit substances were detected in drivers. In particular, two deaths for 2014, nine deaths for 2015 and five deaths for 2016. The purpose of its implementation is to create a safer road network. Existing legislation does not deal with possession or dealing issues but ONLY with issues due to driving under the influence of drugs.

The law provides for a saliva sample to be collected on-site, to perform a preliminary examination, so as to determine whether the driver is under the influence of cannabis, cocaine, opioids and amphetamines. If the preliminary examination detects drugs in the saliva sample, a second saliva sample must be collected, to undergo a laboratory test, so as to confirm the preliminary examination. Any person who refuses or avoids providing a saliva sample is guilty of an offense.

The offenders, if convicted, are subject to imprisonment of up to three years and/or a fine not exceeding three thousand five hundred euros, or to both these penalties.

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) has conducted a 5-year research program on driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol and medicines in 18 EU countries. More than 50 thousand drivers were tested under this program (EMCDDA, 2012).

According to the results of the research program, it was found that among injured or dead drivers, the most frequently detected substance was alcohol (alone), and alcohol in combination with other illicit substances. Detection of only illicit substances was not a common occurrence. The most commonly found substance in injured or dead people after alcohol was tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

The EMCDDA, based on the reported European program, after a cost-benefit evaluation, concluded that the implementation of Narcotest controls on the road through saliva use is economically advantageous.

It also states that the effectiveness of Narcotest depends on several factors. An important factor, according to the EMCDDA's research, is the penalties that will be imposed. The combination of the driver’s license suspension with treatment and rehabilitation is the most effective preventive measure, while the driver’s license suspension for a period of 3-12 months is the second most effective preventive measure,  more effective than jail time or fines.

During the drafting of the bill and its debate in Parliament before its vote, the public prosecutor's opinion was received regarding the constitutionality of the bill.

As for the reference to the genetic material contained in saliva, the legislation contains provisions for its destruction. Saliva with negative indicators is destroyed immediately. Saliva with positive indicators is destroyed after the confirmatory analysis at the State General Laboratory takes place, and one month after the driver’s information of the result.

There are other medicines that affect driving such as sedatives, antipsychotics, opioids, analgesics, etc. In countries such as the United Kingdom, the Scandinavian countries, and the United States, driving under the influence of prescription drugs is prohibited. In Cyprus, on the basis of statistical data obtained from examinations of fatal road accident samples, the implementation of Narcotest was considered a priority.

At a later stage, if necessary, the inclusion of prescription drugs under the Road Safety Act may also be considered. At this stage, it is necessary for patients to be informed by their attending physicians on the effect of their prescription drug on their ability to drive.

Cannabis use is illegal in Cyprus. There is no legal cannabis in Cyprus. It is emphasized that in countries where the use of medical cannabis is permitted, the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) while driving is illegal.

Research has shown some adverse effects of cannabis on drivers, including inadequate reaction time, distraction from the road and the driver's inability to drive straight. For this reason, the zero tolerance law on driving under the influence of drugs, applies. This means that a person may face charges for driving under the influence if there is any amount of drugs in their body.

Simultaneous use of cannabis with alcohol enhances these symptoms.

The short duration of the Narcotest implementation does not allow the interpretation of any data, or drawing of any safe conclusions, since Narcotest checks are not performed on all drivers. Checks are targeted at drivers who drive dangerously, or show signs and symptoms of drug use, such as lack of ability to drive in a straight line.

The implementation of Narcotest can be a preventive factor for driving under the influence, while the recording of relevant statistics and the monitoring of the driving under the influence of illicit substances cases, will allow the design of documented and effective measures and programs to tackle the phenomenon.

The effectiveness of the implementation of Narcotest in Cyprus will necessarily be evaluated some time after its implementation. According to the results of this evaluation, the Cyprus Addictions Authority may recommend measures to improve the legislation.

Frequently asked questions about alcohol

The Cyprus National Addictions Authority (NAAC) aims, among other things, to take measures to prevent the use of addictive substances, including alcohol, which can have a negative impact not only on the individual but also on those around him and on society at large. Through the Action Plan 2017-2020, the Cyprus National Addictions Authority promotes goals, such as delaying the age of first alcohol use, reducing and minimizing the amount of drinking among teenagers, who may already have started drinking, reducing the harm done to children living with families with alcohol problems as well as protecting pregnant women and unborn children. These goals can be achieved through various actions such as:

  • implementing intensive checks in nightclubs frequented by minors, and in establishments selling alcohol near schools for students aged 15-18,
  • regulating existing legislation on alcoholic beverages sales by incorporating new measures aimed at enhancing seller compliance and, thus, reducing the accessibility and availability of alcohol among children and young people.
  • training in responsible sales and distribution of alcohol & harm reduction good practices, for hospitality professionals and organizers of youth festivals and events,
  • providing support through counseling services or alternative activities for children and their families with alcohol or other substance dependence problems,
  • providing organized youth training on prevention for interventions from the youth to the youth,
  • organizing awareness-raising campaigns by children themselves for children in their school environment and within the community,
  • providing parents with parenting skills and dealing with challenging behaviours training,
  • providing brief interventions and referral to supporting services for pregnant and lactating women who consume alcohol.

Changes in consumption patterns among teens, and in particular the observed increase in heavy episodic consumption as well as the easy access to alcohol by minors, are of particular concern in Cyprus. Based on recent findings from the 2015 ESPAD [European Schools Project on Alcohol and other Drugs] survey, alcohol appears to be the most popular substance among young people aged 16 and over. Almost four out of five students (88%) reported having easy access to alcohol, well above the European average (78%). The phenomenon of excessive alcohol consumption on a single occasion occurred mainly in Austria, Cyprus and Denmark, where almost one in two students reported consuming 5+ drinks on a single occasion over the past 30 days. In Cyprus, the rates are quite high, with 57% and 45% among boys and girls respectively. These rates are a major cause for concern, as there is also an upward trend since the previous survey of 2011, with an increase of 1% in boys (56%) and 11% (34%) in girls.

These data were also confirmed by the results of a test market research, conducted by the University of Cyprus Centre for Field Studies in 2015, for the Cyprus National Addictions Authority. The overall aim of the implementation of the “Test Markets” pilot program was to investigate the level of compliance of alcoholic beverages vendors with regard to the minimum age for alcoholic beverages sales and staff training in establishments selling and/or serving liquor in Nicosia and Limassol, with the aim of faithfully implementing the legislation. In the vast majority of the 200 visits, no reaction was observed, but the intention to sell alcoholic beverages was expressed. In only 11 cases out of 200 (5.5%) there was either verbal confirmation or identity verification, which would be the expected reaction.

The Sale of Intoxicating Liquors Law, Cap. 144, contains, among others, provisions for the age of alcohol consumption and distribution, the alcohol distribution to drunk people, the licensing procedure for the sale of alcohol, and the operating hours of establishments that sell alcohol. According to the Law, “...The sale, distribution or administration of alcoholic beverages to persons under the age of 17 and to persons in a drunken state is illegal. Any vendor or store manager who sells, distributes or administers alcohol to persons under 17 or to drunken persons, is considered guilty of a crime and the penalty may include fines or imprisonment, and even the seizure of drinks upon a court decision. The Court may also, in addition to any other penalty, order the seizure and suspension of the person's license."

Within the framework of the National Strategy, NAAC, in cooperation with the Ministry of Interior, has processed and incorporated in the draft of the (amendment) Law. 144 on the "Sale of Intoxicating Liquors", the following changes or additions, with the aim of facilitating the work of the Cyprus Police, to start performing checks on establishments that sell or distribute alcohol. The new measures incorporated into the legislation are aimed at enhancing sellers' compliance and, thus, reducing the accessibility and availability of alcohol among children and young people.

  • Providing vendor training on responsible selling and serving of alcoholic beverages, linked to the licensing process
  • Interpretation of drunkenness and its integration into responsible sales training
  • developing a valid and clear check system
  • imposing more dissuasive penalties (up to 3000 Euro out-of-court financial penalty in case of sale to persons below the legal age limit)
  • communicating the results of law enforcement checks to liquor dealers and property owners, as well as publishing violations annually on the Cyprus Police website
  • A list of sellers of alcoholic beverages and owners of establishments selling alcoholic beverages will be published, upon a decree issued by the Minister of the Interior, with the yearly amendments, in the Official Government Gazette of the Republic.
  • Changing the alcohol access and consumption age limit from 17 to 18 years.
  • It is understood that the proposed amendments may change. Also, the incorporation of relevant regulations may be demanded, at House of Representatives level.

Many women adopt healthy habits during the time they are thinking of or planning a pregnancy, so as to promote the health and well-being of the baby they are about to bring into the world. If you adopt some positive changes to your pre-pregnancy habits, it will be easier to maintain them while you’re pregnant. Avoiding alcohol before pregnancy will prepare the body to offer the right conditions for development of the fetus.

  • In the same way that all substances reach the fetus through the placenta, so does alcohol
  • The more alcohol the mother consumes, the more alcohol passes through the placenta to the fetus
  • The fetus's liver has reduced metabolizing abilities, meaning that, it cannot easily expel alcohol from its body

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risks of:

  • Miscarriage and intrauterine fetal death
  • Abnormal intrauterine development of the fetus
  • Preterm birth
  • Birth of underweight neonates
  • Births of neonates with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome with long-term consequences, such as:
  • Brain, heart, body, hearing or vision impairments, as well as facial features abnormalities
  • problems in balance
  • speech delay
  • learning difficulties
  • low academic performance
  • difficulty in writing and drawing
  • Hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder

Frequently asked questions about smoking

Environmental tobacco contains over 4,000 chemicals, including 69 known to the carcinogens experts such as arsenic, gasoline and cadmium. There is no safe level of exposure to environmental tobacco, which has been proven to adversely affect the cardiovascular system, and is the cause of both adult heart disease and cancer. There is also strong scientific evidence that environmental tobacco can cause a stroke, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults, worsening all existing respiratory disorders. In children and young adults, environmental tobacco smoke is particularly harmful, and can even cause death (sudden infant death syndrome), acute respiratory disorders, middle ear disease and quite severe asthma. Also, children who watch adults smoking, usually become smokers themselves.

The following are the most frequently asked questions about implementing tobacco control in our country. The aim of smoking control and control campaigns is to carry them out in a better and more effective way, with a view to protecting health.

Yes. The responsibilities of all stakeholders involved in establishments’ audits, and whose role extends to the prohibition of smoking, fall within the provisional scope of the Health Protection (Smoking Control) Act of 2017 and the related Regulations, as well also the Extrajudicial Settlement of Offenses Acts, from 1997 to 2017.

An authorized officer is a/an:

  • Member of the Cyprus Police,
  • Officer of the Customs Department,
  • Health Inspector or Health Officer of the Department of Medical and Public Health Services,
  • Municipal Health Officer or another person authorized by the Municipal Council
  • Community Councils Inspector,
  • Consumer Protection Service Officer
  • Labour Inspector of the Department of Labour Inspection
  • Officer of the Cyprus Tourism Organisation˙
  1. To enter a non-smoking area, to ensure compliance with the law.
  2. To issue an out-of-court fine notification, in accordance with the provisions of the Extrajudicial Settlement of Offenses Act

No – it applies to tobacco products, new tobacco products, herbal smoking products, use of electronic cigarettes, hookahs and non-smoking tobacco products.

  1. Smoking is banned in all non-smoking areas as follows: 'non-smoking area' means any indoor or outdoor area of a public building, public or semi-public service area, financial institution, university, school or other educational institution, airport, port, hospital, including rural health centre and outpatient clinic, public or private housing for the elderly and person with disabilities, private clinic, private practice, private dental clinic, private pharmacy, cinema, theater, video or digital disc playback room, museum, gallery, concert hall, cultural centre, public library, sports venue, hotel, factory or other establishment of creation or packaging of food, food preparation room, lift, public toilets, shopping mall, association or club, regardless of the admission type: open or members-only, newsstand, betting agency, spheresterion, a billiards room, an event venue for minors, including playgrounds and other organized spaces for children's gatherings, an internet cafe, a coffee shop and a leisure centre that includes, among others, a restaurant, a cafeteria, a bar, a cabaret, an event venue, a record collection, a dance club or another leisure centre’s, barber shop and hairdresser˙
  2. On a public vehicle (bus, taxi, etc.)
  3. In a private vehicle where a minor (under 18 years) is present
  4. In all workplaces (the use of electronic cigarettes for testing purposes in their specialty stores is not prohibited), including corridors, lifts, common facilities, toilets, changing rooms, waiting rooms, etc.
  5. Where the administrator or owner of any outdoor space prohibits smoking in that area.

In addition, it is banned in the open outdoor spaces of:

  • private or public educational institutions of Pre-primary, Primary, Secondary General and Secondary Technical Education.
  • hospitals, including urban or rural health centres, except for designated open outdoor spaces, which are designated by the management of the hospital or health centre and they are, under no circumstances, allowed to be near the entrance or the exit of the hospital or health centre; and
  • event venues for minors, including playgrounds and other organised spaces children's gatherings.
  • In all open outdoor spaces except for those mentioned above.
  • In special places, which comply with indoor or closed spaces specifications, to be created only in the waiting area of ​​passengers embarking at an airport or port of the Republic, where the access by minors is prohibited, unless the management of this airport or port follows a complete ban on smoking policy.
  • Specially designed smoking areas in hotels (cigar lounges), which have autonomous and independent ventilation and air conditioning system, according to specifications set by the Department of Electrical and Mechanical Services of the Ministry of Transport, Communications and Works, provided that no food is served in these areas and the entrance is prohibited for persons under the age of eighteen (18), as well as for pregnant women.
  • Specially designed floors or rooms for smokers in hotels, which have independent ventilation and air-conditioning system, according to specifications set by the Department of Electrical and Mechanical Services of the Ministry of Transport, Communications and Works.

An "open outdoor space" is any space that is not indoors or closed, and has adequate natural oxygenation.

Adequate natural oxygenation is present in every site which is:

  • not covered by a roof, permanent or temporary
  • covered by a roof, having at least one side permanently open, which takes up at least twenty percent (20%) of the total perimetric walls or sides of the open outdoor space in question;

In this case, smoking in the open outdoor space, as described above, is only permitted if there is a permanent separation installation between the two spaces, which may be interaccessible via an automatically closing door or a double door.

However, if the open outdoor space is fully open or has at least one side permanently open and, where necessary, an additional permanent opening, so that the total permanent opening takes up a percentage bigger than thirty percent (30%) of its total perimetric walls or sides, then no permanent separation installation between the two spaces is required.

The person responsible for the purposes of enforcing tobacco control legislation is the person who is listed in the company file as Director.

In the case of Schools, the Head of the School is responsible for the implementation of the particular legislation, while the checks in these are carried out by the authorized officers of the Health Services of the Medical and Public Health Services.

The person in charge of the non-smoking area and the workplace shall be held responsible for this infringement unless he/she proves that he/she has taken all the necessary measures to prevent smoking in that area.

The notification of the law enforcement authorities by the person above is considered to be sufficient proof of taking the measures required to prevent smoking.

In addition, he/she is required to place a sign in a prominent position in that area, which clearly and legibly indicates that smoking is prohibited.

Finally, he/she is required to cooperate with any authorized officer because, in the event that he/she obstructs, hinders or harasses any authorized officer during the performance of any duty or authority assigned to him/her by the provisions of this Law or the regulations issued pursuant to it, or attempts to do any of the above, he/she is guilty of an offense and, if convicted, is liable to a fine not exceeding two thousand euro (€ 2,000) or to a prison sentence not exceeding six months (6) or to both of these penalties.

Yes, in addition, the following are prohibited:

1. The supply of tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, new tobacco products, herbal smoking products and non-smoking tobacco products to a minor

2. Free distribution of tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, new tobacco products, herbal smoking products and non-smoking tobacco products;

3. The distribution or the offer for distribution or the agreement for distribution or the exposure for distribution purposes or possession for distribution purposes of

  • tobacco products for oral use ∙
  • tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, new tobacco products, herbal smoking products and non-smoking tobacco products, for which the manufacturer did not comply with the requirements of this Law or the regulations issued thereunder. Or
  • schematic imitations of tobacco products; or

4. The distribution or ownership or use of any product, such as an ashtray, lighter, promotional umbrella, pen or other similar promotional product, which –

  • bears the logo of tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, new tobacco products, non-smoking tobacco products and herbal smoking products; or
  • is shaped or designed in a way that refers to tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, new tobacco products, non-smoking tobacco products, and herbal smoking products,

so as to promote tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, new tobacco products, non-smoking tobacco and herbal smoking products.

5. The advertising and/or sponsorship of tobacco products, new tobacco products, oral tobacco, non-smoking tobacco and herbal smoking products as well as electronic cigarettes in the form of a written, oral, printed, radio, cinematic or message from information society services.

6. The sale of tobacco through vending machines.

 

  1. Extrajudicial settlement with the issuance of an extrajudicial fine for offenses listed in Table VII of the Extrajudicial Settlement of Offenses Acts.
  2. The Health Service Supervisor may impose an administrative fine of up to 850 Euro
  3. If convicted, a fine of up to € 2,000 or a prison sentence of up to six (6) months or both (2) penalties.
  4. The Court may, upon the justified application of any authorized officer, issue an order for the suspension of operations of any business regulated by the Recreation Centres Act of 1985, as amended or replaced at any time, for a period of up to four (4) days.

According to the Extrajudicial Settlement of Offenses Acts, authorized officers, under the provisions of the Health Protection (Smoking Control) Act and the Regulations issued pursuant thereto, have the power to check an offense and issue an extrajudicial settlement, as follows:

΄

OFFENSES THAT FALL WITHIN THE COMPETENCE OF THE AUTHORIZED OFFICERS FOR OFFENSES SPECIFIED IN THE PROTECTION OF HEALTH (CONTROL OF TOBACCO) ACT OF 2017 AND PROTECTION AGAINST SMOKING (SMOKING CONTROL) REGULATIONS OF 2017

S/N

Offense Description

Law
or Secondary Legislation, including Regulations

Article/ Legislation

Specified
Fine

 

1.

Smoking in non-smoking areas.

Health Protection (Smoking Control) Act of 2017

11

€85

 

2.

Smoking on public vehicles or in private vehicles where children are present.

Health Protection (Smoking Control) Act of 2017

12

€85

 

3.

Non-placement of a relevant sign in a non-smoking area.

Health Protection (Smoking Control) Act of 2017

13

€85

 

4.

Smoking in indoor or closed workspace.

Health Protection (Smoking Control) Act of 2017

14

€85

 

5.

Obstruction of officers during the performance of their duties.

Health Protection (Smoking Control) Act of 2017

15

€85

 

6.

Non-placement of a prohibition sign in a non-smoking area.

Health Protection (Smoking Control) Act of 2017 

 

 

 

 

Health Protection (Smoking Control) Regulations of 2017 

25
Only in connection with the offense of failing non-placing a prohibition sign in a smoking area.

 

4

€85



For reports of violations of smoking legislation, contact the Citizen Communication Line, 1460 (Cyprus Police).

The toll-free line 1431 provides access to smoking cessation programs of the Mental Health Services of Ministry of Health.

Smoking during Pregnancy has adverse effects, such as: 

  • It exposes the fetus to tobacco, making it the most directly affected passive smoker with adverse effects on its health and development
  • It has the same effects on both the pregnant woman and the fetus, either in the form of active or passive smoking
  • Premature aging and detachment of the placenta
  • Placenta praevia
  • Premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth
  • Intrauterine fetal growth retardation
  • Increased fetal morbidity and mortality

You have to know that Smoking increases the chances of:

  • Birth of underweight babies
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Childhood Asthma
  • Birth of newborns susceptible to respiratory infections
  • Attention Deficit Syndrome
  • Childhood behavioural disorders
  • Failure at breastfeeding   
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